- Rise of Modern English language from Middle English.
- Renaissance affects philosophy, science and art.
- Invention of the printing press by Johann Gutenberg.
- Jeanne d'Arc in 1429 leads French forces to a victory against England in a battle of the Hundred years war.
- Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Empire in 1453.
- Niccolo Machiavelli writes The Prince.
- Christopher Columbus reaches Central America in 1492.
- Muslims are expelled from southern Spain after almost 800 years of rule in 1492.