- January 4: Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. Beginning of the English Civil War.
- The Dutch drive Spain from Taiwan.
- The first recorded sighting of New Zealand and Tasmania by Abel Tasman.
- Blaise Pascal produces a mechanical adding machine.
- Claudio Monteverdi's opera l'Incoronazione di Poppeia is first performed.
- First Battle of Lostwithiel