- July 2: Battle of Marston Moor, a crushing victory for the Parliamentary side of the English Civil War ends Charles I's hold on the north of England.
- September 2: Second Battle of Lostwithiel, the last major victory for Charles I and the Royalist side in the English Civil War.
- Pope Innocent X is elected to the Papacy.
- A peasant revolt brings an end to the Ming dynasty in China. They are succeeded by the Qing Dynasty, sometimes known as the Manchu Emperors.
- Ole Romer, Danish astronomer.