- Protestant reform of the Christian church in several countries in Northern Europe.
- European explorers conquer Indians in Central and South America, introduce horse to the Americas.
- First cirumnavigation of the globe by a ship of Magellan's expedition (1522).
- Introduction of spinning wheel revolutionizes textile production.
- Ottoman Empire reaches Vienna but fails to conquer the city (1529)
- Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun (1543)
- Gregorian Calendar introduced in catholic countries (1582)
- Poland is the largest state in Europe.