- February 11 - Sylvia Plath, poet/novelist.
- November 22 - John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas, by Lee Harvey Oswald.
- February 11 - The Beatles tape 10 tracks for their 1st album, including "Please, Please Me".
- February 11 - CIA Domestic Operations Division is created.
- August 28 - Martin Luther King delivers his "I have a dream" speech on the steps at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C.
- Lyndon Johnson succeeds John F. Kennedy as President of the United States of America
- End of the Mercury program of U.S. manned spaceflight
- Frisch and Smith prove radioactive decay of mesons is slowed by their motion. (See Einstein's Special Relativity and General Relativity).
- Physics - Eugene Paul Wigner, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, J. Hans D. Jensen
- Chemistry - Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta
- Medicine - Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Fielding Huxley
- Literature - Giorgos Seferis
- Peace - International Committee of the Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies