- February 11 - Emil Abranyi, composer.
- September 3 - Vince Lombardi, American football coach
- September 18 - Jimi Hendrix, rock musician
- October 4 - Janis Joplin, blues and rock and roll singer
- January 1: Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC.
- January 15 - After a 32-month fight for independance from Nigeria, Biafra surrenders.
- February 11 - John Lennon pays £1,344 in fines for 96 people who had protested against the South African rugby team playing in Scotland.
- February 11 - Japan becomes the fourth country to launch a satellite into orbit.
- March 1 - Rhodesia severs its last tie with the British crown and declares itself a racially segregated republic.
- May 1 - U.S. troops invade Cambodia.
- May 4 Four students at Kent State University in Ohio are killed by National Guardsmen at a demonstration protesting incursion into Cambodia.
- June 24 - The United States Senate repeals the Gulf of Tonkin resolution.
- Brazil wins Football World Cup in Mexico
- Physics - Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén, Louis Eugène Félix Néel
- Chemistry - Luis F Leloir
- Literature - Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod
- Peace Aleksandr Isaevich Solzhenitsyn
- Economics - Paul Samuelson