The afterlife (also known as life after death) is the notion of something, typically spiritual and experiential, that happens to human beings when they die. There is no widely agreed-upon scientific evidence for life after death, though some would point to studies of near-death experiences as such evidence. In any case, some--particularly atheists and agnostics of a scientific, rational, or rationalistic mindset--hold that we entirely cease to exist. Given that there is an afterlife, there are various notions about it. Probably the most common notion (common to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) is that we go on to a place of happiness or torment, such as heaven, hell, or purgatory or limbo. Others, notably Hindus, believe we reincarnate, whether as humans or as animals.
Many religions hold that after death people suffer reward or punishment based on their deeds or faith; some, however, believe in universalism which holds that all will be rewarded regardless of what they have done or believed.
The question whether or not there is life after death is closely related to the mind-body problem, and like that problem is one of the classic problems of so-called rational psychology and hence of one (now largely outdated) notion of the scope of metaphysics.
See also predestination.