Baruch Spinoza

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Baruch (Benedict) Spinoza (1632-1677) was one of the great rationalists of early modern philosophy, along with René Descartes and Gottfried Leibniz. He was Jewish, of Spanish parents, and born in the Netherlands. He is perhaps most famous for his pantheism, his neutral monism, and the fact that his Ethics was written out in the form of postulates and definitions, as if it were a geometry treatise.


  • A Theologico-Political Treatise (1670)
  • Tractatus Politicus (1677)
  • Ethics (1677)
  • On the Improvement of the Understanding (1677)
  • Short Treatise on God, Man and His Well-Being