North American Beaver Castor Canadensis
(Public domain picture, from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service full size image)
The European beaver, Castor Fiber, was hunted almost to extinction in Europe, both for fur, and for castoreum, a secretion of its scent gland believed to have medicinal properties. Since its near-extinction, the beaver is being re-introduced throughout Europe. The beaver became extinct in Britain in the sixteenth century: there are proposals, and a great deal of interest, in reintroducing the European Beaver to Scotland.
The beaver is the national animal of Canada.