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Marcus Tullius Cicero (born Arpinum, Italy, 106 B.C.; died Rome, December 7, 43 B.C.). born on the Palatine hill of Rome.

Leader in the last half-century of the Roman Republic. Cicero was consul in 63 B.C. -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. He is particularly noted for his speeches against Catiline, the total of which was four- three to the senate, and one to the people. He was later exiled, and during this time, wrote down his speeches, before returning to Rome. He was eventually executed, and his hands and head were hung in the rostra in the Roman forum.

Major Works:

speeches - 58 survive, 88 are recorded
rhetoric - theoretical and historical works survive
letters - hundreds of surviving letters were published after his death
philosophy - political philosophy, ethics, and theology