Complex ion

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An ion consisting of multiple atoms associated together by covalent bonds which can be considered as acting as a single unit in the context of acid/base chemistry or in the formation of salts.

Some commonly-occuring complex ions and their charges are indicated below

carbonate    CO32-
bicarbonate  HCO3-
nitrate      NO3-
phosphate    PO43-
sulfate      SO42-
acetate      CH3C(=O)O-
ammonium     NH4+
hydroxide    OH-
pyridinium   C5H5NH+