Fu-zi simply means teacher. Since it was disrespectful to call the teacher by name according to Chinese culture, he is known as just "Master Kong" or Confucius even in modern days. His actual name was Kong3Qiu1 (孔丘). His alias was Zhong4Ni2 (仲尼 sounds like Johnny :-).
His philosophy, called Confucianism, was extremly influential in China and could be summed up as follows: love others, honor your father and mother, to do what is right (Yi) instead of what is to your advantage (Li), rule by moral example and passivity not force, and do unto others as you would have them do unto you (The Golden Rule).