Dar es Salaam: the largest city (pop. 2 000 000 est), economic centre and former capital of Tanzania. Located on a poor harbour on the Indian Ocean, it is nonetheless the main port for Tanzania, with sea-going exports of coffee, cotton, sisal and hides. Local industries include food products, textiles, cement, and pharmaceuticals.
With an Arabic name meaning Haven of Peace, it was founded in 1866 by the Sultan of Zanzibar, but it remained a small town until after World War II, when a period of rapid growth occurred. It was the capital of Tanzania until 1996, when the government moved to Dodoma. In August 1998 a terrorist bomb exploded at the US Embassy, killing 11 people.