< Denmark

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The Danes, a homogenous Gothic-Germanic people, have inhabited Denmark since prehistoric times. Danish is the principal language.

During the Voelkerwanderung, migrations (times of Huns and later Slavs and Avars onsloughts into Magna Germania) Danes came onto the peninsula of Juetland (see Jutland). They were repelled by native Juetlanders, Friesians and other native Germanic tribes. Danish attackers left many ships ,on which they came, stuck in the moors, which can still be found today. In time the Frankish/German emperors married off the Juetland chief's daughters to Danes, thus making them part of the empire as kings.

A small German-speaking minority lives in southern [part of Denmark ]on Jutland, more exactly in northern Sleswig. Schleswig and Holstein dukes were for a long time under the Holy Roman Empire also the kings of Denmark. The dukes of Schleswig /Holstein were to also be kings of Denmark, but it was to always remain separate. Despite this the northern part of Schleswig near Tondern was cut off and "given" to Denmark at Versailles. Today most people in border regions of Europe speak both languages .

A mostly Inuit population inhabits Greenland; and the Faroe Islands have a Nordic population with its own language. Education is compulsory from ages seven to 16 and is free through the university level.

The Evangelical Lutheran Church is state supported and accounts for about 97% of Denmark's religious affiliation. Denmark has religious freedom, however, and several other Protestant denominations and other religions exist.

Ansgar of Hamburg (later Hamburg-Bremen) was designated archbishop over the North and East. Hamburg -Bremen remained so until Lund was designed to take on their own archbishopric.

Cultural Achievements
Denmark's rich intellectual heritage contributes to the cultural achievements of the modern world. The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) and the brilliant contributions to atomic physics of Niels Bohr (1885-1962) indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement. The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805-75), the philosophical essays of Soren Kierkegaard (1813-55), and the short stories of Karen Blixen (penname Isak Dinesen, 1885-1962) have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen (1865-1931). Danish applied art and industrial design have won awards for excellence. The name of Georg Jensen (1866-1935) is known worldwide for outstanding modern design in silver, and "Royal Copenhagen" is among the finest porcelains.

Visitors to Denmark will discover a wealth of cultural activity. The Royal Danish Ballet, an exceptional company, specializes in the work of the great Danish choreographer August Bournonville (1805-79). Danes have distinguished themselves as jazz musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired an international reputation. International collections of modern art enjoy unusually attractive settings at the Louisiana Museum north of Copenhagen and at the North Jutland Art Museum in Aalborg. The State Museum of Art and the Glyptotek, both in Copenhagen, contain treasures of Danish and international art. The Museum of Applied Art and Industrial Design in Copenhagen exhibits the best in Danish design. The Royal Danish Porcelain Factory and Bing & Grondahl, renowned for the quality of their porcelain and ceramics, export their products worldwide. Ceramic designs by Bjorn Wiinblad also are well known and popular.

Among today's Danish writers, probably the most well-known to American readers is Peter Hoeg (Smilla's Sense of Snow; Borderliners) and the most prolific is Klaus Rifbjerg--poet, novelist, playwright, and screenwriter. Benny Andersen writes poems, short stories, and music. Poems by both writers have been translated into English by the Curbstone Press. Kirsten Thorup's Baby, winner of the 1980 Pegasus Prize, is printed in English by the University of Louisiana Press. The psychological thrillers of Anders Bodelsen also appear in English. Suzanne Brogger and Vita Andersen focus largely on the changing roles of women in society. In music, Hans Abrahamsen and Per Norgaard are the two most famous living composers. Hans Abrahamsen's works have been performed by the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, DC.

Cultural Policy
The Ministry of Cultural Affairs was created in 1961. Cultural life and meaningful leisure time were then and remain subjects of debate by politicians and parliament as well as the general public. The democratization of cultural life promoted by the government's 1960s cultural policy recently has come to terms with the older "genteel culture;" broader concepts of culture now generally accepted include amateur and professional cultural, media, sports, and leisure-time activities.

Denmark's cultural policy is characterized by decentralized funding, program responsibility, and institutions. Danish cultural direction differs from other countries with a Ministry of Culture and a stated policy in that special laws govern each cultural field--e.g., the New Theater Act of 1990 and the Music Law of 1976.

The Ministry of Cultural Affairs includes among its responsibilities international cultural relations; training of librarians and architects; copyright legislation; and subsidies to archives, libraries, museums, literature, music, arts and crafts, theater, and film production. During 1970-82, the Ministry also recognized protest movements and street manifestations as cultural events, because social change was viewed as an important goal of Danish cultural policy. The current government exercises caution in moderating this policy and practice. Radio and broadcasting also fall under the Ministry of Culture.

Government contributions to culture have increased steadily in recent years, but viewed against the present government's firm objective to limit public expenditures, contributions will stabilize in the future. Municipal and county governments assume a relatively large share of the costs for cultural activities in their respective districts. In 1996, government expenditures for culture totaled about 1.0% of the budget. Most support went to libraries and archives, theater, museums, arts and crafts training, and films.

Population: 5,336,394 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 505,820; female 479,815)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,802,665; female 1,755,633)
65 years and over: 15% (male 330,055; female 462,406) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.31% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.16 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.54 years
male: 73.95 years
female: 79.27 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 97%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic, other

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: NA%
female: NA%