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Empedocles - a Greek philosopher that maintained that the matter is made up of four elements : water, earth, air and fire. Empedocles was a citizen of the the city of Agrigentum in Sicily and lived around 450 BC. In addition to the four elements (which he called roots), he postulated postulated something called Love (philia) to explain the attraction of different forms of matter, and of something called Strife (neikos) to account for their separation. He considered these to be distinct substances, with the four elements in solution with them.