Etruscan language

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Etruscan is a language spoken and written in ancient Italy. However, Latin completely superseded Etruscan, leaving only few documents and a few loanwords in Latin (e.g. persona from Etruscan phersu). Although some scholars claim that Etruscan is an Indo-European language, most see it as an isolated language or as part of some super-family like Nostratic.

The reconstructed phonemes of Etruscan:

/a/ letter: A

/e/ letter: E

/i/ letter: I

/u/ letter: V

/w/ letter: F

/h/ letter: H

/p, p_j/ /p_j/ is /p_h/ according to some scholars, the same applies to /t_j/ and /k_j/ letters: P, Phi

/t, t_j/ letters: T, Theta

/k, k_j/ letters: K, Khi

/ts/ letter: Z

/s/ letter: S

/S/ letter: San

/f/ letter: 8, FH

/l/ letter: L

/r/ letter: R

/m/ M

/n/ N

Rix also postulates several syllabic consonants, namely /l, r, m, n/ and palatal /l, r, n/ as well as a labiobvelar spirant. The palatal series may be somehow connected to the palatalization so typical of Romance languages.