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Exodus, the second book in the Torah is also the second book in the Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible (known to Christians as the Old Testament). It recounts the experience of the Hebrew people as they left (exodus) Egypt for the promised land of Canaan. Moses receives the Ten Commandments on Mt. Sinai in Exodus 19:20 -20:21.

Text from Easton's Bible Dictionary 1897:

Exodus is the name given in the Septuagint to the second book of the Pentateuch. It means "departure" or "outgoing." This name was adopted in the Latin translation, and thence passed into other languages. The Hebrews called it by the first words, according to their custom, Ve-eleh shemoth (i.e., "and these are the names").

It contains,

(1.) An account of the increase and growth of the Israelites in Egypt (ch. 1)

(2.) Preparations for their departure out of Egypt (2-12:36).

(3.) Their journeyings from Egypt to Mt. Sinai (12:37-19:2).

(4.) The giving of the law and the establishment of the institutions by which the organization of the people was completed, the theocracy, "a kingdom of priest and an holy nation" (19:3-ch. 40).

The time comprised in this book, from the death of Joseph to the erection of the tabernacle in the wilderness, is about one hundred and forty-five years, on the supposition that the four hundred and thirty years (12:40) are to be computed from the time of the promises made to Abraham (Gal. 3:17).

Moses is traditionally considered the author of Exodus. See also the JEDP theory.