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An extremophile is an organism which thrives under "extreme" conditions, frequently used to refer to unicellular organisms. Many extremophiles are members of the Archaea family.

Thermophiles thrive under very high temperature, while halophiles thrive under conditions of high salt concentration. Methanophile can feed on methane.

Of course "extreme" refers to our notion of what's "normal" or "natural". From their point of view, they live in completely normal conditions.