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1. Fascism (in Italian, fascismo) The authoritarian political movement founded by Benito Mussolini in 1919. The name comes from fascio, which may mean "bundle", as in a political group, but also fasces, the Roman authority symbol of a bundle of rods and axe-head.

2. fascism A system of government which resembles that of meaning 1; an authoritarian dictatorship which uses modern techniques of propaganda and censorship, terror campaigns, and most often violent nationalism and racism (ethnic nationalism).