Gustave de Molinari

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Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912) was a belgian economist.

All his life, together with the other "Economists" (those who would nowadays be described as classical liberals), he defended peace, Free Trade, freedom of speech, freedom of association (including into voluntary trade unions), and liberty in all its forms, and opposed slavery, colonialism, mercantilism, protectionism, imperialism, nationalism, corporatism, economic interventionism, government control of arts and education, and all restraints on liberty.

In the 1840s, he was in Paris, and notably took part in the "Ligue pour la Liberté des Échanges" (Free Trade League), animated by Frederic Bastiat. (On his death bed in 1850, Bastiat considered Molinari as the continuator of his works.)

In 1849, Molinari published several essays describing how a free market in justice and protection could advantageously replace the State, effectively making him the first theorist of anarcho-capitalism.

(For more, see biographical data in the below links...)