Harley-Davidson is an American manufacturer of motorcycles. Harley-Davidson motorcycles are unique in the world of motorcycles, and are considered a preeminent machine. Many bikers will ride nothing else.
The Harley-Davidson engines are all two cylinder, V-Twin engines with the pistons placed at a 45 degree angle. The engine design, which is covered under several United States Patents, produces the unique, signature throbbing sound of the Harley-Davidson power plant.
Engine models include:
- The Shovelhead
- The Panhead
- The Knucklehead
- The Blockhead (also called the "Evolution Engine") in 1340, 1200 and 883 cc displacements.
Founding of the Motor Company
The Harley-Davidson enterprise got off to a less than auspicious start in 1901 when William Harley, 21 and Arthur Davidson, 20, built a prototype motorized bicycle. It was built in the Davidson's garage, which measured only 10 by 15 feet. Once their prototype was functional, they were joined by Arthur's two brothers William and Walter.
In their first two years, they only managed to produce 3 motorcycles.
The Harley-Davidson Motor Company was officially founded in 1903, and they offically started production. They had made some pretty big changes from the early prototypes, including a redesigned frame. Still, 1903 production was only 3 bikes.
In 1906 they built their first real building on Juneau Avenue, which is still the site of the Motor Company today. They had been ramping production up gradually, and with the new facilities they were able to produce 150 motorcycles in 1907. 1907 was an important year in the life of the fledgling company in another way. They began selling their motorcycles to police fleets, a tradition that continues today.
The early bikes had a single piston engine. In 1909 they introduced the 45 degree V-Twin engine. The first V-Twin wasn't the powerhouse that it is today. It displaced only 49.6 cubic inches and produced only seven horsepower. Still, that was double the horses of the first bikes. The top speed was 60 miles per hour, quite a speed in those days. Production was 1,149 motorcycles.
The success of the company had begun to attract attention, and they had over 150 competitors by 1911.
By 1913 the original factory, which measured only 28 by 80 feet, had been expanded to a roomy 297,110 square feet. Despite the harsh competition, Harley-Davidson was already pulling ahead of the pack, completely dominating motorcycle racing. Production had swelled to 12,904 machines.
= World War I Era
In 1916, World War I had broken out in Europe, and the military demanded motorcycles for the war effort. Harleys had already been used by the military in border skirmishes with Pancho Villa, but World War I was the first time the motorcycle had been broadly adopted for combat service. The company had consolidated its position as the motorcycle of choice for police forces. Harley-Davidson provided over 20,000 machines to the military forces during World War I.
By 1920, Harley-Davidson was officially the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Their motorcycles were sold by dealers in 67 countries. Production was 28,189 machines.
In 1921, a milestone was reached in motorcycle racing. A Harley-Davidson machine was the very first to win a race at an average speed of over 100 miles per hour.
During the 1920s, several improvements were put in place, such as a new 74 cubic inch V-Twin, introduced in 1922, and the gastank we still see today, called a "Teardrop" tank, in 1925. A front brake was added in 1928.
= World War II Era
One of only two American cycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression, they again produced large numbers of motorcycles for the Army in World War II and resumed civilian production afterwards, producing a range of large V-twin motorcycles that were successful both on racetracks and for private buyers.
= Modern Era
By the 1970's, however, the "Hog's" design had remained basically unchanged for many years, and was expensive and far inferior in performance, handling, and quality compared to Japanese motorcycles. Rather than trying to match the Japanese at their own game, however, new management deliberately exploited the "retro" appeal of the machines, building motorcycles that deliberately aped the look and feel of their earlier machines and the subsequent customizations of owners of that era. Quality was greatly improved, and technical improvements have been made, but never at the cost of substantially modifying the design of the machine except by gradual degrees.
Even a brand new Harley therefore is in some respects a classic waiting to happen. Probably for this reason, as well as their general collectibility, Harley-Davidson motorcycles hold their resale value very well compared to other vehicles. A well maintained vehicle might never drop in value at all, although regular maintenance and customization are expected.
Similarly, the company now makes a great deal of profit from selling licensed merchandise featuring the Harley-Davidson logo to people who never have or will own one of their motorcycles.
Today, Harley-Davidson is considered an example of an American company that turned itself around from the brink of bankruptcy and back to profitability.
=== External Resources
http://stroked.virtualave.net/page1.html The First Motorcycle