Hittites

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The Hittites were one of a several Indo-European speaking people, who were located on Asia Minor and Mesopotomia (today's central, eastern and southern Turkey and northern parts of Middle East) on the 2nd millennium B.C. Their capital (which is still remaining as a historical place and open to visit) was Hattusas (or Hattushash) in central Anatolia near today's Turkish village of Bogazköy. They probably migrated from Balkans to Anatolia to found a mighty and dominant kingdom in central Anatolia. Their prosperity was largely depending on the control of trade routes and metal sources. For this reason, all the kings' reigns passed mainly by struggles and wars with neighbouring Assyrians, Hurrians and Egyptians, especially when Hittites began to extend their control to Mesopotomia. Not surprisingly, they signed the earliest surviving treaty in history with Egyptians known as Kadesh (or Qadesh) treaty (about 1286-1300 B.C.) after endless and unsuccessful fights against Egyptian forces commanded by Ramses II. After this date their power began to diminish temporarily and they were pushed back by Assyrians and Egyptians. However, the end of the kingdom came from the assaults of nomadic and warrior tribes migrating from Northern territories. The Hittite people, language and culture remained as late as 5th century A.D., as they went on living as discrete and diverse small independent states in central and southeastern Anatolia.

Old Hittite Kingdom (1750-1500 B.C.) Hattusas became the capital

Middle Hittite Kingdom (1500-1450 B.C.)

New Hittite Kingdom (Empire) (1450-1180 B.C.) Suppiluliumas I conquers Syria, Mutawalli attacks Egyptians (Kadesh)