Intel

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Intel is a US based multinational corporation that makes microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. It was founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore and Robert Noyce. Its employee number 4 was Andy Grove, who ran the company more or less from his arrival in the 1960s through his retirement in the 1990s, building it into one of the largest and most successful businesses in the world.

The company started as a memory manufacturer before making the switch to processors. Andy Grove described this transition in the book Only the Paranoid Survive.

Intel currently (as of 2001) produces microprocessors, networking components, motherboard chipsets, and more.

Microprocessors made by Intel:

  • 4004 - Introduced November 15, 1971 - Clock speed 108KHz - 0.06 MIPS - Bus Width 4 bits - Number of Transistors 2,300 at 10 microns - Addressable Memory 640 bytes - Worlds first microprocessor - Used in Busicom calculator
  • 8008 - Introduced April 1, 1972 - Clock speed 200KHz - 0.06 MIPS - Bus Width 8 bits - Number of Transistors 3,500 at 10 microns - Addressable memory 10 kilobytes - Typical in dumb terminals, general calculators, bottling machines - developed in tandem wiht 4004
  • 8080 - Introduced April 1, 1974 - Clock speed 2MHz - 0.64 MIPS - Bus Width 8 bits - Number of Transistors 6,000 at 6 microns - Addressable memory 64 kilobytes - 10X the performance of the 8008 - Used in the Altair, Traffic light controller - Required six support chips versus 20 for the 8008
  • 8085 - Introduce March 1976 - Clock speed 5MHz - 0.37 MIPS - Bus Width 8 bits - Number of Transistors 6,500 at 3 microns - Used in Toledo scale - High level of integration, operating for the first time on a single 5 volt power supply from 12 volts previously
  • 8086 - Introduced June 8, 1978 - Clock speeds 5MHz with 0.33 MIPS, 8MHz with 0.66MIPS, and 10MHz with 0.75 MIPS - Bus Width 16 bits - Number of Transistors 29,000 at 3 microns - Addressable memory 1 megabytes - 10X the performance of 8080 - Used in portable computing
  • 8088 - Introduced June 1, 1979 - Clock speeds 5MHz with 0.33 MIPS, 8MHz with 0.75 MIPS - Internal architecture 16 bits - External bus Width 8 bits - Number of Transistors 29,000 at 3 microns - Addressable memory 1 megabytes - Identical to 8086 except for its 8 bit external bus - Used in IBM PCs and PC clones
  • 80186 - Introduced 1982 - Used mostly in controller applications
  • 80286 - Introduced Febuary 1, 1982 - Clock speeds 6MHz with 0.9 MIPS, 8MHz , 10MHz with 1.5 MIPS, and 12.5MHz with 2.66 MIPS - Bus Width 16 bits - Number of Transistors 134,000 at 1.5 microns - Addressable memory 16 megabytes - Virtual memory 1 gigabyte - 3-6X the performance of the 8080 - Used in all PC clones at the time - Can scan the Encyclopedia Britannica in 45 seconds
  • 80386DX - Introduced October 17, 1985 - Clock speeds 16MHz with 5 to 6 MIPS, 2/16/1987 20MHz with 6 to 7 MIPS, 4/4/1988 25MHz with 8.5 MIPS, and 4/10/1989 33MHz with 11.4 MIPS (9.4 SPECint92 on Compaq/i 16K L2) - Bus Width 32 bits - Number of Transistors 275,000 at 1 micron - Addressable memory 4 gigabytes - Virtual memory 64 terabytes - First X86 chip to handle 32-bit data sets - Built in multitasking - Included math coprocessor - Used in Desktop computing - Can address enough memory to manage an eight-page history of every person on earth - Can scan the Encyclopedia Britannica in 12.5 seconds
  • 80386SX - Introduced June 16, 1988 - Clock speeds 16MHz with 2.5 MIPS, 1/25/1989 20MHz with 2.5 MIPS, 25MHz with 2.7 MIPS, and 10/26/1992 33MHz with 2.9 MIPS - Internal architecture 32 bits - External bus Width 16 bits - Number of Transitors 275,000 at 1 micron - Addressable memory 16 megabytes - Virtual memory 256 gigabytes - 16-bit address bus enable low cost 32-bit processing - Built in multitasking - Lacked math coprocessor - Used in entry-level desktop an portable computing
  • 80486DX - Introduced April 10, 1989 - Clock speeds 25MHz with 20 MIPS (16.8 SPECint92, 7.40 SPECfp92), 5/7/1990 33MHz with 27 MIPS (22.4 SPECint92 on Micronics M4P 128k L2), and 6/24/1991 50MHz with 41 MIPS (33.4 SPECint92, 14.5 SPECfp92 on Compaq/50L 256K L2) - Bus Width 32 bits - Number of Transistors 1.2 million at 1 micron the 50MHz was at .8 micron - Addressable memory 4 gigabytes - Virtual memory 64 terabytes - Level 1 cache on chip - 50X performance of the 8088 - Used in Desktop computing and servers
  • 80386SL - Introduced October 15, 1990 - Clock speeds 20MHz with 4.21 MIPS and 9/30/1991 25MHz with 5.3 MIPS - Internal architecture 32 bits - External bus width 16 bits - Number of Transistors 855,000 at 1 micron - Addressable memory 4 gigabytes - Virtual memory 64 terabytes - First chip specifically made for portable computers because of low power consumption of chip - Highly integrated, includes cache, bus, and memory controllers
  • 80486SX - Introduced April 22, 1991 - Clock speeds 9/16/1991 16MHz with 13 MIPS, 20MHz with 16.5 MIPS, 9/16/1991 25MHz with 20 MIPS (12 SPECint92), and 9/21/1992 33MHz with 27 MIPS (15.86 SPECint92) - Bus Width 32 bits - Number of Transistors 1.185 million at 1 micron and 900,000 at .8 micron - Addressable memory 4 gigabytes - Virtual memory 64 terabytes - Identical in design to 486DX but without math coprocessor - Used in low-cost entry to 486 CPU desktop computing - Upgradable with the Intel OverDrive processor
  • 80486DX2 - Introduced March 3. 1992 - Clock speeds 50MHz wiht 41 MIPS (29.9 SPECint92, 14.2 SPECfp92 on Micronics M4P 256K L2) and 8/10/1992 66 MHz with 54 MIPS (39.6 SPECint92, 18.8 SPECfp92 on Micronics M4P 256K L2) - Bus Width 32 bits - Number of Transistors 1.2 million at .8 micron - Addressable memory 4 gigabytes - Virtual memory 64 terabytes - Used in high performance, low cost desktops - Uses "speed doubler" technology where the microprocessor core runs at twice the speed of the bus
  • 80486SL - Introduce November 9, 1992 - Clock speeds 20MHz with 15.4MIPS, 25MHz with 19 MIPS, and 33MHz with 25 MIPS - Bus Width 32 bits - Number of Transistors 1.4 million at .8 micron - Addressable memory 64 megabytes - Virtual memoty 64 terabytes - Used in notebook PCS
  • Pentium (60 and 66 MHz) - Introduced March 22, 1993 - Clock speeds 60MHz with 100 MIPS (70.4 SPECint92, 55.1 SPECfp92 on Xpress 256K L2) and 66 MHz with 112 MIPS (77.9 SPECint92, 63.6 SPECfp92 on Xpress 256K L2) - Bus width 64 bits - Address bus 32 bits - Number of transistors 3.1 million at .8 micron - Addressable Memory 4 gigabytes - Virtual Memory 64 terabytes - Pin count 273 PGA Package - Package dimensions 2.16" x 2.16" Superscalar architecture brought 5X the performance of the 33MHz 486DX processor - Ran on 5volts of power - Used in desktops
  • DX4 - Introduced March 7, 1994 - Clock speeds 75MHz with 53 MIPS (41.3 SPECint92, 20.1 SPECfp92 on Micronics M4P 256K L2) and 100MHz with 70.7 MIPS (54.59 SPECint92, 26.91 SPECfp92 on Micronics M4P 256K L2) - Number fo Transistors 1.6 million at .6 micron - Bus Width 32 bits - Addressable memory 4 gigabytes - Virtual memory 64 terabytes - Pin count 168 PGA Package, 208 SQFP Package - Die size 345 Square mm - Used in high performance entry-level desktops and value notebooks
  • Pentium (90 and 100 MHz) - Introduced March 7, 1994
  • Pentium (75 MHz) - Introduced October 10, 1994
  • Pentium (120 MHz) - Introduced March 27, 1995
  • Pentium (133 MHz) - Introduced June 1995
  • Pentium Pro (200, 180, 166, 150 MHz) - Introduced November 1, 1995
  • Pentium (150 and 166 MHz) - Introduced January 4, 1996
  • Pentium (200 MHz) - Introduced June 10, 1996
  • Pentium MMX (200 and 166 MHz) - Introduced January 8, 1997
  • Pentium II (233, 266, and 300 MHz) - Introduced May 7, 1997
  • Pentium MMX (233 MHz) - Introduced June 2, 1997
  • Pentium Pro with 1MB L2 Cache (200 MHz) - Introduced August 18, 1997
  • Mobile Pentium with MMX Technology (200 and 233 MHz) - Introduced September 8, 1997
  • Mobile Pentium wiht MMX Technology (266 MHz) - Introduced January 12, 1998
  • Pentium II (333 MHz)
  • Pentium II (233 and 266 MHz)
  • Pentium II (350 and 400 MHz)
  • Celeron (266 MHz)
  • Celeron (300 MHz)
  • Pentium II Xeon (400 MHz)
  • Celeron (300A MHz)
  • Celeron (333 MHz)
  • Pentium II (450 MHz)
  • Mobile Pentium II (300 MHz)
  • Pentium II Xeon (450 MHz)
  • Celeron (366 and 400 MHz)
  • Pentium II Xion (450 MHz)
  • Mobile Pentium with MMX Technology (300 MHz)
  • Mobile Celeron (266 and 300 MHz)
  • Mobile Pentium II (266, 300, 333, and 366 MHz)
  • Pentium III (450, 500, 550, and 600 MHz)
  • Pentium(r) III Xeon(tm) Processor (500 and 550 MHz) - Introduced March 17, 1999 - Number of Transistors 9.5 million at 0.25 micron - L@ cache is 512KB, 1MB, or 2MB - Processor Pckage Style is Single Edge Contact Cartridge (S.E.C.C.2) - System bus speed 100 MHz - System Bus Width 64 bit - Addressable memory 64 gigabytes - Used in buisness PCs, two-, four- and eight-way (and higher) servers and workstations
  • Celeron (450 MHz)
  • Mobile Celeron (333 MHz)
  • Celeron (466 and 500 MHz)
  • Mobile Celeron (366 MHz)
  • Mobile Celeron (400 MHz)
  • Pentium II (400 MHz)
  • Pentium II (400 MHz)
  • Mobile Celeron (433 and 466 MHz)
  • Mobile Pentium III (400, 450, and 500 MHz)
  • Pentium III (500, 533, 550, 600, 650, 667, 700, 733 MHz)
  • Pentium(r) III Xeon(tm) Processor built on 0.18 micron process technology (600, 667, and 733 MHz) - Introduced October 25, 1999 - Number of transistors 28 million - Level Two cache is 256KB Advanced Transfer Cache (Integrated) - Processor Package Sytle is Single Edge Contact Cartridge (S.E.C.C.2) - System Bus Speed 133 MHz - System Bus Width 64 bit - Addressable memory 64 gigabytes - Used in two-way servers and workstations
  • Celeron (533 MHz)
  • Pentium(r) III Xeon(tm) Processor built on 0.18 micron process technology (800 MHz) - Introduced January 12, 2000 - See 600, 667, and 733 for details
  • Mobile III with SpeedStep Technology (600 and 650 MHz)
  • Mobile Celeron (450 and 500 MHz)
  • Pentium III (1.0 GHz)
  • Pentium III (850 and 866 MHz)
  • Celeron (566 and 600 MHz)
  • Pentium(r) III Xeon(tm) Processor built on 0.18 micron process technology (866 MHz) - Introduced April 10, 2000 - See 600, 667, and 733 chips for details
  • Mobile Celeron (550 MHz)
  • Mobile Pentium III with SpeedStep Technology (700 MHz)
  • Pentium(r) III Xeon(tm) Processor built on 0.18 micron process technology (700 MHz) - Introduced May 22, 2000 - Level Two cache was 1MB and 2MB Advanced Transfer Cache (Integrated) - Processor Package Sytle SC330 - System Bus Speed 100MHz - System Bus Width 64 bit - Addressable Memory 64 gigabytes - Used in 4- and 8-way servers
  • Pentium III (933 MHz)
  • Pentium(r) III Xeon(tm) Processor built on 0.18 micron process technology (933 MHz) - Introduced May 24, 2000 - Level Two cache was 256KB Advanced Transfer Cache (Integrated) - Processor Package Style SC330 - System Bus Speed 133MHz - System Bus Width 64 bit - Addressable Memory 64 Gigabytes - Used in business and consumer PCs, one and two-way servers and workstations
  • Mobile Celeron (600 and 650 MHz)
  • Mobile III with SpeedStep Technology (750 MHz)
  • Low Voltage Mobile Pentium(r) III with Intel(r) SpeedStep(tm) Technology (600 MHz) - Introduced June 19, 2000 - 256KB Advanced Transfer Cache (Integrated) - 0.18 micron - Package Style: Ball Grid Array (BGA2) - Bus Speed 100 MHz - Streaming SIMB extentsions - Core Voltage 1.1 volts (Battery Optimized Mode) - Watts average less than 1 watt (Battery Optimized Mode) - Used in Business, Consumer, Education
  • Celeron (633, 667, and 700 MHz)
  • Mobile Celeron (700 MHz)
  • Mobile Pentium III with SpeedStop Technology (800 and 850 MHz)
  • Celeron (733 and 766 MHz)
  • Pentium(r) 4 Processor built on 0.18-micron process technology (1.40 and 1.50 GHz) - Introduced November 20, 2000 - Level Two cache was 256KB Advanced Tansfer Cache (Integrated) - Processor Package Style was PGA423, PGA478 - System Bus Speed 400MHz - SSE2 SIMD Extensions - Number of Transistors 42 million - Used in desktops and entry-level workstations
  • Celeron (800 MHz)
  • Ultra Low Voltage Mobile Celeron (500 MHz)
  • Ultra Low Voltage Mobile Pentium(r) III Processor Featuring Intel(r) SpeedStep(tm) Technology (500 MHz) - Introducted January 30, 2001 - Had a 300MHz Battery Optimized Mode - 256K Advanced Transfer Cache (Integrated) - Packaging: Ball Grid Array (BGA) - Bus Speed 100 MHz - Voltage 1.1V;<1V in Battery Optimized Mode - Wattage: <1watt; <0.5 watt at 300MHz - Used in business and comsumer mobile PCs
  • Ultra Low Voltage Mobile Pentium III with SpeedStep Technology (600 and 700 MHz)
  • Low Voltage Mobile Pentium(r) III with Intel(r) SpeedStep(tm) Technology (700MHz) - Introduced Febuary 27, 2001 - See 600 chip for details
  • Mobile Celeron (750 MHz)
  • Low Voltage Pentium III for Applied Computing (700 MHz)
  • Mobile Pentium III with SpeedStep Technology (900 MHz and 1.0 GHz)
  • Pentium(r) III Xeon(tm) Processor built on 0.18 micron process technology (900 MHz) - Introduced March 21, 2001 - Level Two cache was 2MB Advanced Transfer Chache (Intergrated) - Processor Package Style SC330 - System Bus Speed 100MHz - System Bus Width 64 bit system bus - Addressable memory 64 Gigabytes - Used in high-end servers, 4-and 8-way multiprocessing systems
  • Pentium(r) 4 Processor built on 0.18-micron process technology (1.7 GHz) - Introduced April 23, 2001 - See the 1.4 and 1.5 chips for details
  • Celeron (850 MHz)
  • Mobile Celeron (800 MHz)
  • Low Voltage Mobile Celeron (600 MHz)
  • Ultra Low Voltage Mobile Celeron (600 MHz)
  • Low Voltage Mobile Pentium(r) III with Intel(r) SpeedStep(tm) Technology (750 MHz) - Introduced May 21,2001 - See 600 chip for details
  • Ultra Low Voltage Mobile Pentium(r) III Processor Featuring Intel(r) SpeedStep(tm) Technology (600 MHz) - Introduced May 21, 2001 - See 500 chip for details
  • Intel(r) Xeon(tm) Processor (1.4, 1.5, 1.7 GHz) - Introduced May 21, 2001 - Level Two cache was 256KB Advanced Transfer Chache (Integrated) - Processor Package Style was Organic Lan Grid Array 603 (OLGA 603) - System Bus Speed 400MHz - SSE2 SIMD Extensions - Used in hig-peformance and mid-range dual processor enabled workstations
  • Celeron (900 MHz)
  • Mobile Celeron (850 MHz)
  • Pentium(r) 4 Processor built on 0.18-micron process technology (1.6 and 1.8 GHz) - Introduced July 2,2001 - See 1.4 and 1.5 chips for details -Core Voltage is 1.15 volts in Maximum Performance Mode; 1.05 volts in Battery Optimized Mode - Wattage <1 watt in Battery Optimized Mode - Used in full-size and then and light mobile PCs
  • Mobile Intel(r) Pentium(r) III Processor-M (866 and 933 MHz) - Introduced July 30, 2001 - Bus speed 133 MHz - 0.13 Micron - 512KB on die L2 cache - Packaging: Micro FCBGA/PGA - SIMD Extensions -
  • Mobile Intel(r) Pentium(r) III Processor-M (1.00, 1.06, 1.13 GHz) - Introduce July 30, 2001 - Bus speed 133 MHz - 0.12 Micron - Cache is 512KB on-die L2 cache - Packaging is Micro FCBGA/PGA - SIMD Extensions - Core Voltage is 1.4 volts in Maximum Performance Mode; 1.15 volts in Battery Optimized Mode - Wattage <2 watts in Battery Optimized Mode - Used in full-size and thin and light mobile PCs
  • Pentium(r) 4 Processor built on 0.18-micron process technology (1.9 and 2 GHz) - Introduced August 27, 2001 - See 1.4 and 1.5 chips for details
  • Celeron (950 MHz, 1 and 1.10 GHz)
  • Itanium (?)

Some Intel related terms:

  • x86 - refers to 8086, 80286, 80386 or 80486 - it sometimes refers to the instruction set of the original 8086 processor
  • 286 - refers to 80286
  • 386 - refers to 80386
  • 486 - refers to 80486
  • Pentium - 80586. Intel began naming their chips Pentium instead of following the x86 convention. Numbers cannot be trademarked, and other chip manufacturers were capitalizing on "486-compatible" etc. so they needed name recognition and brand protection. Note that while Pentium connotes an association with 5, later chips of 80686 retained the name-recognition of "Pentium."
  • Pentium MMX - 80586 ?
  • Pentium II - 80686, codenamed Klamath
  • Pentium III - 80686
  • Pentium IV - 80686, codenamed Willamette ?
  • Wintel - refers to a computer running a Microsoft Windows operating system on an Intel processor
  • IA32 - Intel architecture, 32 bit, referring to 80386 through Pentium IV processors
  • ia64 - New 64-bit architecture designed by Intel and Hewlett-Packard, including backwards compatibility with Intel IA32 and HP PA-RISC.

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