For most of historic time, the city and empire of Babylon occupied parts of the present time region of Iraq. There were many dynasties and kingdoms which ruled Babylon and other cities in the Tigris river basin.
20th Century and onwards
Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq became an independent kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of military strongmen have ruled the country since then, the latest being Saddam Hussein.
Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war, the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988). In August 1990 Iraq seized Kuwait, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during January-February 1991 (see Gulf War). The victors did not occupy Iraq, however, thus allowing the regime to stay in control. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. UN trade sanctions remain in effect due to incomplete Iraqi compliance with relevant UNSC resolutions.