Japan/Transportation

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Railways: total: 23,670.7 km standard gauge: 2,893.1 km 1.435-m gauge (entirely electrified) narrow gauge: 89.8 km 1.372-m gauge (89.8 km electrified); 20,656.8 km 1.067-m gauge (10,383.6 km electrified); 31 km 0.762-m gauge (3.6 km electrified) (1994)

Highways: total: 1,152,207 km paved: 863,003 km (including 6,114 km of expressways) unpaved: 289,204 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km

Ports and harbors: Akita, Amagasaki, Chiba, Hachinohe, Hakodate, Higashi-Harima, Himeji, Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura, Kobe, Kushiro, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai, Sakaide, Shimizu, Tokyo, Tomakomai

Merchant marine: total: 662 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,039,488 GRT/18,024,969 DWT ships by type: bulk 146, cargo 49, chemical tanker 13, combination bulk 16, combination ore/oil 4, container 25, liquified gas 45, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 214, refrigerated cargo 22, roll-on/roll-off 48, short-sea passenger 9, vehicle carrier 60 (1999 est.)

Airports: 171 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 140 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 34 1,524 to 2,437 m: 41 914 to 1,523 m: 28 under 914 m: 31 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 31 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 28 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 14 (1999 est.)