We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of John the Baptist in the Gospels. (The Eastern Orthodox also refer to him as John the Forerunner because he was the forerunner of Christ.) He was of priestly descent. His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia 1 Chr. 24:10, and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron Luke 1:5. The mission of John was the subject of prophecy Matt. 3:3; Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1. His birth, which took place six months before that of Jesus, was foretold by an angel. Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech restored to him on the occasion of his circumcision Luke 1:64. After this no more is recorded of him for thirty years than what is mentioned in Luke 1:80. John was a Nazarite from his birth Luke 1:15; Num. 6:1-12. He spent his early years in the mountainous tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and the [[Dead Sea]] Matt. 3:1-12.
At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes from "every quarter" were attracted to him. The sum of his preaching was the necessity of repentance. He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees as a "generation of vipers," and warned them of the folly of trusting to external privileges Luke 3:8. "As a preacher, John was eminently practical and discriminating. Self-love and covetousness were the prevalent sins of the people at large. On them, therefore, he enjoined charity and consideration for others. The publicans he cautioned against extortion, the soldiers against crime and plunder." His doctrine and manner of life roused the entire south of Palestine, and the people from all parts flocked to the place where he was, on the banks of the Jordan. There he baptized thousands unto repentance.
The fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth Matt. 3:5, and he came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John, on the special ground that it became him to "fulfil all righteousness" 3:15. John's special office ceased with the baptism of Jesus, who must now "increase" as the King come to his kingdom. He continued, however, for a while to bear testimony to the Messiahship of Jesus. He pointed him out to his disciples, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God." His public ministry was suddenly (after about six months probably) brought to a close by his being cast into prison by Herod, whom he had reproved for the sin of having taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip Luke 3:19. He was shut up in the castle of Machaerus (q.v.), a fortress on the southern extremity of Peraea, 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded. His disciples, having consigned the headless body to the grave, went and told Jesus all that had occurred Matt. 14:3-12. John's death occurred apparently just before the third Passover of Jesus' ministry.
Jesus himself testified regarding John that he was a "burning and a shining light" John 5:35. The Eastern Orthodox believe that John was the last of the Old Testament prophets, thus serving as a bridge figure between that period of revelation and Jesus.
Initial text was from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897; please update as needed.