Karl Wilhelm Scheele

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   December 9, 1742
   Stralsund, Pomerania, Sweden (now Pomorze, Poland)
Anyone please add a PD image
   May 21, 1786
Karl (or Carl) Wilhelm Scheele, Swedish chemist, discoverer of many chemical substances.

Scheele worked as a pharmacist in Stockholm, from 1770-1775 in Uppsala, and later in Köping. His studies lead him to the discovery of oxygen and nitrogen in 1772/73, which he published in his only book Chemical Observations and Experiments on Air and Fire in 1777, losing some fame to Joseph Priestley, who independently discovered oxygen in 1774.

Scheele also discovered other chemical elements like chlorine (1774), manganese (1774), tungsten (1781), barium, and molybdenum (1782), as well as several molecules like glycerol, hydrocyanic acid (aka prussic acid), citric acid, hydrogen sulphide, and hydrogen fluoride. Furthermore, he discovered a process similar to pasteurization.

As many chemists in his time, Scheele often worked under difficult and often dangerous conditions, which might explain his early death.