Ketone

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In chemistry, a ketone is a functional group characterized by the presence of an oxygen atom double bonded to a carbon atom, which carbon atom in turn is only bonded to other carbon atoms. Ketones are carbonyl compounds.

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Keton group

Among the other oxygen-containing functional groups, this last quality distinguishes ketones from carboxylic acids, aldehydes, esters, and amides. The double-bonded nature of the ketone group distinguishes it from alcohols and ethers. The smallest ketone is acetone:

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unless ketene (CH2CO) counts.

Ketones are named by appending -one to the stem. Eg: butanone

Oxidation of alcohol to create ketone

Ketones can be created by oxidation of secondary alcohols. The process requires a strong oxidising agent such as potassium dichromate. The alochol is oxdised by heating under reflux in acidified solution. For example propan-2-ol is oxidised to propanone:

C3H7OH -> C3H6O

Two atoms of hydrogen are removed, being replaced by a single oxygen atom double bonded to a carbon atom.