Lithium

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Lithium is an elemental metal.

Properties

  • Atomic Symbol: Li
  • Atomic Number: 3
  • Atomic Weight: 6.941
  • Melting Point: 180.6°C
  • Boiling Point: 1342°C
  • Critical Temperature: ---
  • Densitya: 0.534 g/cm3
  • Electronic Structure: [He]2s
  • Valence states: +1
  • Crystal Structures:
  • Thermal Conductivityb: 0.848 (W/cm*K)
  • Heat Capacityb: 24.860 (J/mol*K)

a at 20°C b at 25°C

Lithium was discovered by Arfvedson in 1817, the name deriving from lithos the Greek word for stone. It is the lightest of all metals. Lithium is quite reactive and does not occur freely in nature. Lithium containing compounds are present in most igneous rocks and in the waters of many mineral springs. The metal, which is silvery in appearance, is produced electrolytically from the fused chloride. It reacts readily with water, but is less reactive than sodium. Because of its large specific heat (the largest of any solid), lithium is used in heat transfer applications. It is also an important battery anode material due to its high electrochemical potential. Lithium chloride and lithium bromide are extremely hygroscopic and frequently used as dessicants. Lithium stearate is a common all-purpose high-temperature lubricant.

Li7 is one of the primordial elements (produced in big bang nucleosysthesis).

?? Doesn't most Lithium come from the same neutron-capture process that gives rise to Beryllium and Boron?
Lithium salts; lithium carbonate is an mood stabilizer used in the treatment of Bipolar Disorder.


See: Periodic table