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Mandaeanism is a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Gnostic origins. Whilst a millennium or more ago Mandaeans were found throughout Persia and Babylonia, today they are remain only in isolated pockets of Iran and Iraq.

Mandaeans believe that Jesus was a false prophet; instead they follow John the Baptist. It is uncertain whether the the origin of the Mandaeans is in followers of John the Baptist, or whether they merely adopted him.

The main Mandaean scripture is the Ginza Rba.

Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, was brought up as a Mandaean, but later left Mandaeanism to found his own religion.