Mehrgarh

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Mehrgarh is an ancient city in Balochistan, Pakistan. It is located in the Katchi plain near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus valley and between the present-day cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi,

It is often cited as the earliest known farming settlement in south Asia, based on archaeological excavations from 1974 (Jarrige et al). The earliest evidence of settlement dates from 7000 - 6000 BC. It's also cited for the earliest evidence of pottery in south Asia.

The site shows habitation over a long period of time, with improving technology such as mud brick construction, wheat and barley farming, domestication of sheep, goats and cattle, basket weaving, pottery, terracotta figurines of women and animals and bead ornaments made from shells and stones.

It was also reported in 2001 that the inhabitants may have practiced dentistry, with small holes found in the molar teeth from the remains of two men. It was suggested that the stone drills used to create beads could have been used (Andrea Cucina, University of Missouri-Columbia).

The city seems to have been largely abandoned around 2600 - 2000 BC, which is the time of the Indus Valley Civilisation.

References

Balochistan Hills - http://bosei.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/~indus/english/1_1_01.html

Prehistoric dentistry evidence found - http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/health/newsid_1272000/1272010.stm