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The Mesolithic (middle stone age) is the period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods, i.e., from the end of the Pleistocene to the introduction of farming in any particular geographical region. In some regions farming was already in use by about this time so there's no room for a mesolithic period.

Remains from this period are few and far between, often limited to midden, rubbish heaps which grew over time. In forested areas of the World, the first signs of deforestation have been found, although this would only start in earnest during the Neolithic, when extra space for farming was needed.