Mining

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Mining is the extraction of valuable materials from a naturally available source.

Common materials extracted are:

bauxite (for aluminum)
coal,
copper,
diamonds,
iron (from the ore haematite),
gold,
nickel,
salt,
silver,
tin,
uranium.

Techniques include:

hard rock mining,
open pit mining,
strip mining.

Bioleaching is the application of naturally available bacteria to extract metals from their ore.