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The use of Monera to refer to one branch of the five-kingdom top-level division of living things has largely been supplanted by the term Bacteria which is now used to refer to one of the three top-level domains, the others being Archaea and Eukaryota.

In Linnaean Taxonomy Monera comprised the bacteria. It contained the Phyla :

Sub-Kingdom Archaebacteria
   Division Mendosicutes
      Phylum Methanocreatrices
      Phylum Halophilic and Thermoacidophilic Bacteria
Sub-Kingdom Eubacteria
   Division Tenericutes
   Division Gracilicutes
      Phylum Spirochaetae
      Phylum Thiopneutes
      Phylum Anaerobic Phototrophic Bacteria
      Phylum Cyanobacteria
      Phylum Chloroxybacteria
      Phylum Nitrogen-fixing Aerobic Bacteria
      Phylum Pseudomonads
      Phylum Omnibacteria
      Phylum Chemoautotrophic Bacteria
      Phylum Myxobacteria
   Division Firmicutes
      Phylum Fermenting Bacteria
      Phylum Aeroendospora
      Phylum Micrococci
      Phylum Actinobacteria