Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"
Antoine Henri Becquerel
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"
Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)
"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"
Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard
"for his work on cathode rays"
Sir Joseph John Thomson
"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"
Albert Abraham Michelson
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"
"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"
"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"
Nils Gustaf Dalén
"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"
"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"
Max von Laue
"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"
1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
Charles Glover Barkla
"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"
Charles Edouard Guillaume
"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"
Niels Henrik David Bohr
"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"
Robert Andrews Millikan
"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"
Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn
"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"
Jean Baptiste Perrin
"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"
Arthur Holly Compton
"for his discovery of the effect named after him"
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"
Owen Willans Richardson
"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"
Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie
"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"
1931 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
Werner Karl Heisenberg
"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
1934 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
"for the discovery of the neutron"
"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"
Ernest Orlando Lawrence
"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"
1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"
Isidor Isaac Rabi
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"
"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"
Percy Williams Bridgman
"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"
Sir Edward Victor Appleton
"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"
"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"
Cecil Frank Powell
"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"
Frits (Frederik) Zernike
"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"
Donald Arthur Glaser
"for the invention of the bubble chamber"
"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the stucture of the nucleons"
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"
Lev Davidovich Landau
"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"
Eugene Paul Wigner
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
J. Hans D. Jensen
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
Charles Hard Townes
Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"
"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
Hans Albrecht Bethe
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
Luis Walter Alvarez
"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén
"for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
Louis Eugène Félix Néel
"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"
"for his invention and development of the holographic method"
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
Brian David Josephson
"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"
Sir Martin Ryle
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
Aage Niels Bohr
Ben Roy Mottelson
Leo James Rainwater
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa
"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"
Arno Allan Penzias
Robert Woodrow Wilson
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
Sheldon Lee Glashow
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
Arthur Leonard Schawlow
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
Kai M. Siegbahn
"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"
Kenneth G. Wilson
"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"
William Alfred Fowler
"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"
Klaus von Klitzing
"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"
Norman F. Ramsey
"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
Hans G. Dehmelt
"for the development of the ion trap technique"
Jerome I. Friedman
Henry W. Kendall
Richard E. Taylor
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"
"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"
Bertram N. Brockhouse
"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"
Clifford G. Shull
"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"
Zhores I Alferov
"for basic work on information and communication technology"
"for developing semiconductor heterostuctures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"
Jack S Kilby
"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"
Eric A Cornell
Carl E Wieman
"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
Note" - all citations are quoted from the Nobel foundation's website: http://www.nobel.se