1. Penguins are an order of flightless birds living in the southern hemisphere.
Public domain picture from U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration full size image
They are mostly found in cold climates (including the pack ice of Antarctica), although some species live as far north as the Galpagos Islands and will occasionally cross the Equator while feeding. Most penguins live off fish, squid, and other forms of sealife that they catch while swimming underwater.
The largest species of penguin is the Emperor Penguin, where adults of the species average about 1.1 meter tall and mass 30 or more kilograms. The smallest penguin species is the Little Penguin (also known as the Fairy Penguin), which is typically 35 to 40 cm tall and 1 kilogram. Generally larger penguins retain heat better and thus inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are found in temperate or even tropical climates.
See also Great auk.
2. A British publisher.