Clement IV, pope (1265-1268), (Guy Foulques, archbishop of Narbonne, France) was elected pope in February 1265. Before taking orders he had been successively a soldier and a lawyer, and in the latter capacity had acted as secretary to Louis IX of France, to whose influence he was chiefly indebted for his elevation.
At this time the Holy See was engaged in a conflict with Manfred, the usurper of Naples; and Clement, whose election had taken place in his absence, was compelled to enter Italy in disguise. He immediately took steps to ally himself with Charles of Anjou, the French pretender to the Neapolitan throne, who marched into Naples, and having defeated and slain Manfred in the great battle of Benevento, established himself firmly in the kingdom. Clement is said to have disapproved of the cruelties committed by Charles, and there seems no foundation for the charge of his having advised the latter to execute the unfortunate Conradin, the last of the church's long-time antagonists of the house of Hohenstaufen. His private character was unexceptionable, and he is especially commended for his indisposition to promote and enrich his own relatives. He also did himself great honour by his encouragement and protection of Roger Bacon. He died in November 1268, and was buried at Viterbo, where he had resided throughout his pontificate.
from the 9th edition (1876) of an unnamed encyclopedia