Pope Paul VI

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Paul VI, pope (1963-1978), born Giovanni Montini in 1897 in northern Italy. Ordained a priest in 1920, archbishop of Milan in 1953, cardinal in 1958.

Closed the Second Vatican Council in 1965 and directed the implementation of its directives until his death in 1978.

Promulgated the encyclical Humanae vitae, "Of Human Life," in 1968, restating the Catholic Church's position on artificial birth control.

preceded by Pope John XXIII (1958-1963)
succeeded by Pope John Paul I (1978)