Roman Inquisition

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The Roman Inquisition began in 1542 when Pope Paul III established the Holy Office as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. In reaction to the excesses of the Spanish Inquisition, it was tightly controlled by strict procedural rules under the administration of Francisco Peña.

Among the subjects of this Inquisition were Francesco Patrizi, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella, and Galileo Galilei. Of these, only Bruno was executed; Galileo died under house arrest and Campanella spent many years in prison.

See also Inquisition, the Medieval Inquisition, and the Spanish Inquisition.