Romanian language

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Romanian (or Rumanian) is an Eastern Romance language, spoken mainly in Romania. There is a lot of Slavonic influence, both on the phonetic level and on the lexical level - for example, Rumanian _da_ 'yes' is a Slavonic word, and Romanian is the only Romance language with /h/. (Although in some types of Castilian, <j> is pronounced as [h], but the original, Castilian phoneme is /x/.)

Scholars generally tend to agree on the following consonant phonemes:

phoneme grapheme


/r/ r

/l/ l

/m/ m

/n/ n

/f/ f

/v/ v

/s/ s

/z/ z

/S/ s with cedilla, as in Turkish

/Z/ j

/h/ h

/p/ p

/b/ b

/t/ t

/d/ d

/k/ c- before velar vowels, ch- before palatal vowels

/g/ g- before velar vowels, gh- before palatal vowels

Dimitrescu also includes


/ts/ t with cedilla

/dz/ dz

/tS/ c- before palatal vowels, ce- before velar vowels

/dZ/ g- before palatal vowels, ge- before velar vowels

/k_j/ (palatal /k/)

/g_j/

/w/ u

/j/ i

Petrovici also includes palatal /p, b, m, f, v, t, d, n, s, z, ts, S, Z, l, r/ counterparts as well as rounded /p, b, m, f, v, t, d, n, s, z, ts, S, Z, l, r, k, g, h/ phonemes as well as palatal and rounded /p, b, m, v, t, l, r, k, dZ, tS, j/.