Sam Loyd

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Samuel Loyd, (1841-1911) American puzzle author and recreational mathematician. Author of the 1914 book "Cyclopedia of Puzzles", published after his death.

Sam Loyd claimed to have invented the famous "fifteen puzzle" where 15 of the 16 squares of a 4x4 frame are filled with numbered sliding pieces, leaving one space in which to slide on piece at a time. The puzzle is to slide the 15 pieces into order.


  • "Mathematical Puzzles of Sam Loyd: Selected and edited by Martin Gardner".
  • "The Puzzle King : Sam Loyd's Chess Problems and Selected Mathematical Puzzles" edited by Sid Pickard.

See also: