Samuel Butler

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There are in fact two notable Samuel Butlers, both of them English authors:

The first Samuel Butler (1612-1680) was born in or near the town of Upton upon Severn in Worcestershire: he is remembered now for a satirical poem on Puritanism entitled Hudibras. There is a memorial plaque to him in the small village church of Strensham, Worcestershire.

The second Samuel Butler, (1835-1902) moved as a young man to the then new colony of New Zealand, and wrote a description of his life there entitled A First Year in Canterbury Setttlement. On his return to England from New Zealand, his satirical novel Erewhon was published anonymously, causing some speculation as to the identity of the author; when Butler was revealed as the author, there was some disappointment that it was not any of the more famous personages speculated about. Erewhon made Butler a well-known figure, and he wrote a number of other books, including a not so successful sequel, Erewhon Revisited. His semi-autobiographical novel The Way of All Flesh was not published until after his death, as he considered its tone of attack on Victorian hypocrisy would be too contentious.

Erewhon revealed Butler's long interest in Darwin's theories of biological evolution, though Butler spent a great deal of time criticising Darwin, not least because he believed that Charles had not sufficiently acknowledged his grandfather Erasmus Darwin's contibution to the origins of the theory.

Links: A first year..., Erewhon, Erewhon Revisited, The Way of all Flesh and several other of his works are available for free download from Project Gutenberg at