Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages and its common origin with modern European and the more familiar classical languages of Greek and Latin can be seen, for instance, in the Sanskrit words for mother, matr, and father, pitr (perhaps some more examples?).
For India, Sanskrit occupies a role similar to that of Latin in Western Europe. It was a language of religious ritual and scholars, it is now dead, and it had locally varied spoken forms Prakrits such as Pali.
Sanskrit had some influences in the Chinese culture because Buddhism was transmitted to China in Sanskrit originally. Many Chinese buddhist scriptures were written in Chinese transliteration of Sanskrit words. Some Chinese proverbs use Buddhist terms that originate from Sanskrit.