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A shaman is a holy man or woman and a magician in some cultures. Shamans are usually ascribed abilities to speak to spirits and do magic such as astral projection and healing. Shamanic traditions often include induction of trance through drugs (often neurotoxins known to be hallucinogens), chanting, fasting, dancing and music. Researchers suspect that in some cultures schizophrenia or similar conditions may predispose an individual to the role of shaman.

Shamans are usually found in tribal cultures with nature religions and beliefs in ancestor spirits, though some persons in the modern west name themselves shamans.