Stalingrad, named after Joseph Stalin, was the temporary name of a city both earlier and later called Volgograd. It is a city in the southwest Volgograd province (formerly Stalingrad oblast) in what was the Soviet Union. The city was known as Stalingrad from 1925 until 1961. The reversion of the name back to Volvograd was part of Nikita Khrushchev's attempt to liberalize the Soviet Union somewhat after Stalin's rule. See Volgograd.
Stalingrad is also a brief way of referring to a vicious World War II battle taking place in the Russian city of Stalingrad from 1942–43--in terms of loss of human life, one of the costliest battles in history. See Battle of Stalingrad.
Stalingrad was, before the Russian Civil War, known as Tsaritsyn. The city was renamed, according to one source, owing to Stalin's victory over a White Russian force three times the size of his own during the civil war.