Theodore Kaczynski (born May 22, 1942 in Chicago) is a terrorist who attempted to fight against the perceived evils of technological progress by engaging in an almost eighteen-year-long campaign of sending mail bombs to various people, killing three and wounding 29. Before his identity was known, the FBI refered to him as the Unabomber (from "university and airline bomber").
Ted Kaczynski was a loner as a child. Extremely gifted, he received a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and held a position as assistant professor at Berkeley from 1967 to 1969. He worked in complex analysis. He quit the position and did not hold permanent employment after that. He lived in a remote shack on very little money, occasionally worked odd jobs and received some financial support from his family.
The first mail bomb was sent in 1978 to an engineering professor, it slightly wounded a campus policeman. It was followed by bombs to airline officials and bombs designed to explode on airplanes. Initially, the bombs were of amateur quality and did not cause much harm.
The first serious injury occurred in 1985, when a Berkeley graduate student lost four fingers and vision in one eye. The bombs were all hand crafted and carried the inscription "FC", which was later found to mean "Freedom Club". A Californian computer store owner was killed by a nail and splinter loaded bomb lying in his parking lot in 1985. A similar attack against a computer store occurred in 1987.
After a six-year break, Kaczynski struck again in 1993, mailing a bomb to David Gelernter, a computer science professor at Yale and developer of the Linda distributed programming system. Gelernter has written a book on the subject called: "Drawing Life : Surviving the Unabomber". Another bomb in the same year maimed the geneticist Charles Epstein. Kaczynski wrote a letter to the New York Times claiming that his "anarchist group" called FC was responsible for the attacks.
In 1994, an advertising executive was killed by another mail bomb. In a letter, Kaczynski justified the killing by pointing out that the public relations field is in the business of developing techniques for manipulating people's attitudes.This was followed by the murder of a forestry association president in 1995.
In 1995, Kaczynski mailed several letters, some to his former victims, outlining his goals and demanding that his paper Industrial Society And Its Future (commonly called the "Unabomber Manifesto"), be printed by a major newspaper; he stated that he would then end his bombing campaign. The pamphlet was indeed published by the New York Times and Washington Post in September 1995, with the hope that somebody would recognize his writing style.
The main argument of Industrial Society And Its Future is that progress can be stopped and in fact should be stopped in order to free people from the unnatural demands of technology, so that they can return to a happier, simpler life close to nature.
It is a biased and unprofessionally written neo-luddite tract, but by no means out of sync with the ideas of the contemporary anti-technological movement. If not for the stigma attached to its author's criminal activities, it might be more widely used as a source. Indeed, Bill Joy, cofounder of Sun Microsystems, quoted it in his April 2000 Wired magazine article on the dangers of technology, "Why The Future Doesn't Need Us."
Apprehension and trial
Kaczynski's younger brother David recognized Ted's writing style from the published manifesto and notified authorities, who arrested Kaczynski in 1996 at his remote cabin outside Lincoln, Montana. David had received assurances from the FBI that he would remain anonymous and that in particular his brother would not learn who had turned him in. Ted's lawyers attempted an insanity defense which Kaczynski rejected; a court-appointed psychiatrist diagnosed paranoid schizophrenia but declared him competent to stand trial. Kaczynski avoided the death penalty by pleading guilty; he is serving a life sentence without the possibility of parole in a maximum security prison in Florence, Colorado.
References and external links
- Ted Ottley, "All about the Unabomber", http://www.crimelibrary.com/terrorists/unabomber/
- Bill Joy, "Why the Future doesn't need us", Wired Magazine April 2000, http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.04/joy_pr.html
- Ted Kaczynski "Industrial Society And Its Future", The New York Times 19-September-1995, available online at:
- John Bullough, "Published Works of Theodore Kaczynski", http://www.rpi.edu/~bulloj/tjk/tjk.html. List of his mathematical papers.
- Interview with Kaczynski http://www.primitivism.com/kaczynski.htm