- Atomic Symbol: Ti
- Atomic Number: 22
- Atomic Weight: 47.88
- Melting Point: 1670±10°C
- Boiling Point: 3289°C
- Critical Temperature: ---
- Densitya: 4.54 g/cm3
- Electronic Structure: [Ar]3d34s2
- Valance states: 2,3,4
- Crystal Structures: α-hexagonal, β-cubic (838°C)
- Thermal Conductivitya: 0.219 (W/cm*K)
- Heat Capacitya: 25.060 (J/mol*K)
Titanium was discovered by William Gregor in 1791 and named after the Titans of Greek mythology by Klaproth in 1795. Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust and is present in most igneous rocks and in sediments derived from them. It occurs in the minerals rutile, ilmenite, and sphene, as well as many iron ores and titanates. Pure metallic titanium (99.9%) was first prepared in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter by heating TiCl4 with sodium in a steel bomb. Today titanium metal is produced commercially by reducing TiCl4 with magnesium, a process developed in 1946 by William Justin Kroll.
When pure, titanium is a lustrous, white metal. It is light, strong, easily fabricated, and very resistant to corrosion. Its relatively high melting point makes it useful as a refractory metal. Titanium is as strong as steel, but 45% lighter. It is 60% heavier than aluminum, but twice as strong. Because of its strength and light weight, titanium alloys are principally used for aircraft and missiles, although applications in consumer products such as golf clubs, mountain bikes, and laptop computers are becoming more common.
The largest use of titanium is in the form of titanium dioxide, which is an important pigment used in both house paint and artist's paint. It has good covering power and is quite permanent.