Turkmenistan/Transnational issues

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Turkmenistan's declaration of "permanent neutrality" was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995. Turkmenistan has been supportive of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

Although the Government of Turkmenistan claims to favor trade with and export to the United States and Turkey, it has significant commercial relationships with Russia and Iran and a growing cross-border trade with the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The Government of Turkmenistan often appears to be trying to use the conflicting interests of these regional partners as a means to extract concessions from the others, especially on energy issues. Turkmenistan has poor relations with Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan.

Disputes - international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; limited government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe; also a transshipment point for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan