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Ulster is one of the historical provinces of Ireland, two thirds of which is currently part of the United Kingdom (counties Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Tyrone) and at present is more commonly referred to as Northern Ireland. The Unionist part of the population of Northern Ireland usually refers to this area as Ulster.

The three Ulster counties Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan are part of the Republic of Ireland.

In the 1600s Ulster was the last redoubt of the traditional Gaelic way of life, and following the defeat of the Irish forces at the battles of Kinsale, Mountjoy and Dunboy Castle, Elizabeth I was successful in the subjection of Ulster and all Ireland.